Adjusting visceral activity
Stimulation of the posterior circuitous process, cingulate gyrus, insula, bungee, piriform cortex, para-apricot cortex, posterior hippocampus and other parts of the limbic system can cause respiratory and vascular and other visceral reactions in humans and animals. The visceral response caused by stimulating different parts of the hypothalamus is most pronounced. Simultaneously with the appearance of piloerection and dilated pupils, the blood pressure rises sharply, the heart rate increases, and drinking, feeding, urination, defecation, salivation, and vomiting occur. Stimulation of the circuitous layer can cause a drop in blood pressure and slower heart rate. It is generally believed that the effect of the limbic system on cardiovascular activity is achieved through the hypothalamus and lower brain stem reflex center of activity. In addition, the limbic system can also affect the hypothalamic nerve secretion through the so-called neurohumoral pathway of the hypothalamic-pituitary system, thereby affecting the secretion of the corresponding pituitary hormones, resulting in changes in visceral functional activity. Experiments have shown that many parts of the limbic system receive impulses from the visceral afferent nerves. This impulse is important for the limbic system to feedbackally regulate visceral activity. It has been found that some of the neurons in the limbic system are themselves extremely sensitive receptors. For example, the hypothalamus has neurons that sense temperature changes and neurons that sense changes in the blood glucose concentration. The activity of these neurons has important physiological significance for regulating body temperature changes, secretion of digestive fluids, and eating activities.
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